Ja’far As-Sadiq (a.) reported that Imam Ali (a.) said: “As for the disbelief (kufr) mentioned in the Scripture of God, there are five kinds. The first kind is the disbelief of denial (Juhud) and this includes disbelief (Kufr) alone. As far as disbelief of denial (Juhud) is concerned, one of the two types is denying the unity (of God) and this is the word of the one who says: “There is no Lord, no paradise, no hell, no resurrection and no gathering.” And those are counted among the heretics (Zanadiqah), and of those, who make everything dependent on time (Dahriyyah), are those, who say: “Only time causes us to perish.” (45:24) And this is an opinion they themselves invented and considered good without proof. Therefore, the Exalted One says: “They only make assumptions.” (45:24) And He says: “To those who disbelieve, it is the same whether you warn them or do not warn them; they will not believe.” (2:6) By which is meant that they do not believe in the unity of God. The second kind of denial (Juhud) is the denial with the knowledge of its truth. The Exalted One says: “They denied it, although their innermost being was certain of it, out of injustice and arrogance.” (27:14) And the Exalted One says: “Before, they used to ask for victory over those who did not believe. And when what they knew came to them, they denied it. So let the curse of God come upon the disbelievers!” (2:89) By which their denial (Juhud) is meant, after they knew it. As far as the third kind of disbelief (kufr) is concerned, it is the neglection (tark) of what God has commanded, and this counts as disobedience (ma’siyah). The Exalted One says: “When We accepted your obligation: “You shall not shed each others’ blood nor drive each other out of your dwellings.” Then you confirmed it by bearing witness to this. Yet you are killing one another and drive out a section of yourselves from their homes, supporting one another in guilt and transgression against them. And when they come to you as prisoners, you release them. Yet you are forbidden to drive them out. “Do you believe in one part of the Scriptures and deny the other part?” (2:84-85) Therefore they became disbelievers (Kuffar) because of the neglection (Tark) of what God had commanded and He attributed them externally (Zahir) to belief (Iman) because of their tongues, but without including the inner (Batin). Therefore, because of the Word of Allah, it was of no use to them: “Retribution to those of you who do this is nothing but shame in this worldly life, and on the Day of Judgment they shall be brought to the severest chastisement. And God will not fail to take heed of what you do.” (2:85) As far as the fourth kind of disbelief (kufr) is concerned, it is what the Exalted One reports about the statement of Abraham (a.): “We practise disbelief towards you and between us and you, enmity and aversion are forever visible until you internalize faith in God alone.” (60:4) And with his statement: “We have disbelief toward you. Means: “We are renouncing from you.” And the Exalted One mentions the story of the devil and his dissociation on the last day by the guardians he appointed among men: “I deny your association of me (with Allah) before.” (14:22) By which is meant: “I renounce myself from you.” And the Exalted One says: “Instead of God, you have only taken idols as a bond for affection among you in this life. Then on the Day of Judgment some of you will disbelieve against others, and some of you will curse others, and your abode will be the Fire, and there will be no one to stand by you.” (29:25) As for the fifth kind of disbelief (kufr), it consists in disbelief in the grace (Ni’mah). The Exalted One reports that Sulaiman (a.) said: “This is from the grace of my Lord, that He may test me whether i am grateful or ungrateful. And he who is grateful is grateful for his own benefit. And if one is ungrateful, my Lord is dependent on no one and is generous.” (27:40) And the Exalted One says: “If you are grateful, I will show you even more mercy. And if you are ungrateful, my punishment is severe.” (14:7) And the Exalted One says: “Therefore remember Me, and I will remember you, and thank Me, and be not ungrateful to Me.” (2:152) [Musnad Ali of Al-Qubanchi, Volume 9 Page 347 – 349 Hadith 10195]

بو عبدالله محمد بن إبراهيم النعماني في تفسيره, عن أحمد بن محمد بن سعيد بن عقدة, عن أحمد بن يوسف بن يعقوب الجعفي, عن اسماعيل بن مهران, عن الحسن بن علي بن أبي حمزة, عن أبيه, عن اسماعيل بن جابر, عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: قال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: وأما الكفر المذكور في كتاب الله فخمسة وجوه: منها كفر الجحود, ومنها كفر فقط, فأما كفر الجحود فأحد الوجهين منه جحود الوحدانية وهو قول من يقول: لا رب ولا جنة ولا نار ولا بعث ولا نشور وهؤلاء صنف من الزنادقة, وصنف من الدهرية الذين يقولون ما يهلكنا إلا الدهر وذلك رأي وضعوه لأنفسهم, استحسنوه بغير حجة, فقال تعالى: إن هم إلا يظنون وقال: إن الذين كفروا سواء عليهم أأنذرتهم أم لم تنذرهم لا يؤمنون أي لا يؤمنون بتوحيد الله والوجه الآخر من الجحود هو الجحود مع المعرفة بحقيته, قال تعالى: وجحدوا بها واستيقنتها أنفسهم ظلما وعلوا وقال سبحانه: وكانوا من قبل يستفتحون على الذين كفروا فلما جائهم ما عرفوا كفروا به فلعنة الله على الكافرين أي جحدوه بعد أن عرفوه وأما الوجه الثالث من الكفر: فهو كفر الترك لما أمر الله به, وهو من المعاصي قال الله سبحانه وإذ أخذنا ميثاقكم لا تسفكون دماءكم ولا تخرجون أنفسكم من دياركم ثم أقررتم وأنتم تشهدون إلى قوله أفتؤمنون ببعض الكتاب وتكفرون ببعض فكانوا كفارا لتركهم ما أمر الله تعالى به, فنسبهم إلى الايمان بألسنتهم على الظاهر دون الباطن, فلم ينفعهم ذلك بقوله تعالى: فما جزاء من يفعل ذلك منكم إلا خزي في الحياة الدنيا الآية وأما الوجه الرابع من الكفر, فهو ما حكاه الله تعالى عن قول إبراهيم عليه السلام: كفرنا بكم وبدا بيننا وبينكم العداوة والبغضاء أبدا حتى تؤمنوا بالله وحده فقوله كفرنا بكم أي تبرأنا منكم, وقال سبحانه في قصة إبليس وتبريه من أوليائه من الانس إلى يوم القيامة إني كفرت بما أشركتموني من قبل أي تبرأت منكم, وقوله تعالى: إنما اتخذتم من دون الله أوثانا مودة بينكم في الحياة الدنيا ثم يوم القيامة يكفر بعضكم ببعض ويلعن بعضكم بعضا الآية وأما الوجه الخامس من الكفر وهو كفر النعم قال الله تعالى عن قول سليمان عليه السلام: هذا من فضل ربي ليبلوني أأشكر أم أكفر الآية, وقوله عزوجل: ولئن شكرتم لازيدنكم ولئن كفرتم إن عذابي لشديد وقال تعالى: فاذكروني أذكركم واشكروا لي ولا تكفرون

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